Friday, May 22, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 873 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/02/15 Category Health Essay Level High school Tags: Diet Essay Did you like this example? Although websites might advertise this extremely healthy Ã¢â¬Å"paleo dietÃ¢â¬ that involves only Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ agricultural foods and pounds of red meat, but do not be fooled. This is not the true paleo diet. There is actually no one Ã¢â¬Å"trueÃ¢â¬ paleo diet, but many variable Paleolithic diets that depend on what is locally available to the hominine (Warinner 2013). The items that provided our ancient relatives nutrients might be labeled as inedible in our cultures today, for example, the practice of entomophagy. Hominines would eat anything that would provide sustenance, including a large range of insects (Lesnick 10/24). Many people believe the misconception that we as humans, as well as our prehistoric hominine relatives, are these meat-eating beings. We are not. Our bodies are not anatomically or genetically adapted to meat consumption. All animals require vitamin C, which is a true vitamin in humans, meaning that it is only acquired by consuming a plant containing it. Carnivores that are adapted to regularly consume meat can make their own vitamin C, while, we as a species, need to eat vegetation to obtain it. A plant diet is supported by our much longer guts, which hold food for longer to gain more nutrients from fibrous materials. Our large molars support the shredding of highly fibrous vegetation, while we lack the carnassial teeth that are seen in carnivores (Warinner 2013). A prehistoric hominine would have consumed any number of available food sources in their environment, many of which we can identify through varying analyses. Anthropologists use stable isotope analysis to figure out the ty pes of signature of isotopes a hominine have and therefore the types of food they are consuming. Using comparative anatomy, along with archeological and ecological records available would give an anthropologist a relatively clear story of what a hominine is eating near the time of death. All of these techniques need to be taken into consideration because a C4 conundrum could occur. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Hominin Diet" essay for you Create order The C4 conundrum refers to a situation where the morphology of the skeleton shows one type of diet, while the isotope analysis shows a completely different food consumption pattern. For example, Paranthropus boisei or Ã¢â¬Å"The Nutcracker ManÃ¢â¬ has the anatomy that supports the consumption of hard diet of mainly nuts, though their isotope reading and ecological data shows a high C4 intake. The Nutcracker Man was eating foods such as wheat, corn and tubers as their main food source, while their thick enameled teeth were better suited for the fall back food of nuts when their main C4 vegetation was not available (Loudon 10/8). Anthropologists can also look at fossilized dental plaque found on ancient skeletons called dental calculus. The plaque obtained from an individual can give a unique signature of microfossils of plants and other remains that the hominine would have eaten throughout their life. When analyzing the dental calculus of Paleolithic hominines, researchers are seeing an abundance of plant remnants such as barley, legumes and tubers (Warinner 2013). An anthropologist can also looks at the dental microware as a method to determine the mechanical properties of the food a prehistoric person was eating. For example, a person who consumed a large amount of tough, fibrous foods would have long parallel striations on the occlusal surface of their tooth, while a person that constantly eats a diet of hard, brittle foods like nuts would have pits on their teeth (Howells 11/12). An animal needs regular protein in their diet to survive. Little proteins are found in vegetation, therefore Paleolithic hominines need to supplement their diet with regular protein intake. Most early and middle hominines were not actively hunting, but scavenging the high protein bone marrow from the already picked over bones of carnivores (Howells 11/7). When high protein food was scarce, or the seasons were not supportive of hunting, many Paleolithic individuals would practice entomophagy, the consumption of insects, to supplement their protein intake. Dr. Julie Lesnick mentions that chimpanzees and some tropical populations practice entomophagy to increase their protein intake regularly. She mentions specifically that pregnant hominines, who need more protein in order to support fetus brain development, would use entomophagy as a quick and sure way of obtaining their needed nutrients. Although insect consumption is a more ecologically friendly due to its decreased pollution, water waste and methane release, very little current populations practice entomophagy. Dr. Lesnick mentions some key viewpoints of why she believes insect consumption is not widely practiced or studied to this day. She claims that due to the practice of entomophagy being a predominantly female exercise, it was overlooked when western societies reported on them (Lesnick 10/24). Diet is very important for understanding a species of individuals. It is extremely difficult to know for sure what a Paleolithic individual ate, though there are techniques to determine their common diet pattern (Warinner 2013). Moreover, the fact that entomophagy is efficient to obtain and more ecologically friendly is an interesting concept to think about when you look at all the starving individuals in the world today. The environmental impacts are low while the protein obtained is high and a good supplement for individuals with currently low protein diets. Meanwhile, there is no true Paleolithic diet that can be obtained today, though we might be able to become closer to our Paleolithic counterparts by partaking in entomophagy (Lesnick 10/24).
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Henrik Ibsen, writer of his most famed play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House. Ibsen emphasizes on small-town life in this play. A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House takes place in the 1880s in Europe/Norway and based on a married couple, Torvald Nora, who are considered to be middle class. The main character Nora in IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play, A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, seems to give this false installment of her identity. She is both unpredictable and childlike. The entire first and second act she spends giving this hidden subtext that she is unreliable. Nora Helmer is energetic/ enthusiastic due to the fact that she is always singing. Torvald refers to her as a spendthrift because she can never save any money from her allowance. Nora is Torvalds trophy wife. Throughout the play, Nora Helmer is dehumanized through her nicknames and portrayed as a doll figure through the way she acts. The readers first impression of Nora is that of an obedient and childlike wife. Nora seems to let Torvald control her every move. For her entire life, she has been treated not as his wife, but a mere child. In the first act, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a glimpse of that when Nora comes into the house with a variety of Christmas gifts. She then tries to get TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when he calls out to Nora with a distinctive nickname. He recalls: HELMER [calls out from his room]. Is that my little lark twittering out there? NORA [busy opening some of the parcels]. Yes, it is! HELMER. Is it my little squirrel bustling about? NORA. Yes! HELMER.Show MoreRelatedDollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen1126 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHenrik Ibsen wrote the book, DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, in the late 1870s about the life of the common woman in Norway during the 1870s. The book gave society an inside of look of the life women in general. Woman during this time were oppressed and men were contemptuous towards women. Women that opposed their husband were considered mentally insane and sent to a mental institution. The book is about a domesticated woman named Nora. Nora lives in a house with her husband and their three kids. Nora main job toRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessuffrage, took place from 1848-1920. In the drama A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen, readers are presented with what seems to be the perfect little American dream home. Anti-feminist values are presented immediately in the first scenes of the play and carry out until the end. The play was written in 1879, a time when the feminist move ment was just starting to take shape and become well known. The drama A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House has feminist themes that indicate Henrik Ibsen to be a supporter of the feminist movement throughRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen was written in 1879 during the Victorian Era. The story is written as a play to be performed on stage. The two main characters Nora and Torvald Helmer are upper middle class husband and wife, but it boils down to social expectations. Conflicts arise when women are under their husbands rule for everything and society pressure to keep up appearances. Torvald Helmer is the antagonist to Nora, his wife, because he is mostly concerned about his reputation, he is the supremeRead MoreA Dolls House, by Henrik Ibsen1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe themes of Ã¢â¬Å"objecthoodÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"feminine liberationÃ¢â¬ in Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House as conveyed through the characterization o f Torvald and Nora, diction, stage directions and structure in two integral scenes. Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House conveys the story of a wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to break away from the social norms of late nineteenth century middle class Europe. Throughout the play, Ibsen focuses on NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s characterization and experiences and thus this leads the reader to perceive her as the protagonistRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprevalent in a variety of literary selections. This paper will focus on animal imagery in Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House by using the reader response strategy. In the play A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen, animal imagery is used in the development of the main character Nora. It is also later found that the animal imagery is a critical part in understanding who Nora is and how other characters perceive her. Ibsen uses creative animal imagery to develop Noras character throughout the play. The animalRead MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen868 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmoney is considered to hold the most power. In the case of the household, the person who holds the most power is the person who handles the money, and in our man-centric world, it is usually the man who holds both money and power. In Henrik Ibsens play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, the theme of money is used to establish power roles between the characters of the play, and how the theme contributes to typical gender roles in the 19th century. A womans duty in the 19th century was to exhibit Ã¢â¬Å"piety, purity, submissivenessRead MoreA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen Essay961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, pointedly captures the reality of the Victorian Era within the play. Nora Helmer, the protagonist of the story, represents the typical women in society during that era. The audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s first impression of Nora is a money obsessed, childish, obedient house wife to her husband, Torvald Helmer. However, as the play progresses one can see that Nora is far from being that typical ideal trophy wife, she is an impulsive liar who goes against societyÃ¢â¬â¢s norm to be whomRead More A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen Essay842 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen Ã¢â¬Å"A dolls houseÃ¢â¬ was written by Henrik Ibsen and produced by famous actors during the time of the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s; in fact it was the year of 1879 to be precise. It was around this time that many different Social, cultural and historical moments were changing through time, leaving the end result to change not only one country but had an effect on most of the world. For this section of the work I will be carefully discussing with you the issues of; * Social events Read More A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen Essay1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen The play Ã¢â¬Å"A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s HouseÃ¢â¬ by Henrik Ibsen is about a wife that is hiding a big secret from her overprotective husband. The play takes place on Christmas Eve till the day after Christmas. Nora Helmer and Torvald Helmer have been married for 8 years, yet Nora is hiding something from Torvald that she thinks would ruin everything if he found out. It opens up with Nora coming home and decorating the house for Christmas and making preparations. They have 3 children:Read MoreA Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen834 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMr. Krogstad, a former employee of Torvald is the leading antagonist in A Doll House. He clearly has an agenda and a lust for power. KrogstadÃ¢â¬â¢s lust for power gives the reader a sense of subtle rage because Krogstad only wants whatÃ¢â¬â¢s best for him and his family but he exploits Nora for his own gain. Krogstad advances the plot by controlling Nora through a loan, while illuminating both main characters, and reinforcing the themes of confusion and lost love. Krogstad influences the plot in a very
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ed is MARRIED IS BETTER THAN BEING SINGLE There are lots of discussion and arguments about to being single or getting married nowadays. The new generation might not willing to bound into marriage life and they wish to remain in single life so they can have more privacy, freedom and the commitment of Ã responsibilities. However, marriage is union ordained by God and it is also a wonderful union of two people in love. We will write a custom essay sample on Marries Is Better Than Being Single or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is unique, opposite-sex union with legal, social, economic and spiritual dimensions. Getting married does bring a lot of advantages to a person either family. The biggest advantage for getting married is emotional stability. Married people treat their own family as shelter and they can feel secure and relax when staying together with their family. Family provides a peace and comfort zone for those married people to restore their energy. Marriage can helps the couple to become more tolerant, unselfish, caring and more responsible. Its provide a chances for the husband and wife to grow with and sharing their lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s challenges, rewards and sorrows with a person who actually knows and understand what you going through and feels the same frequency. There are a lots of difficulties have to learn by marriage people as that is not easiest to living with someone for the rest of their life. They have to overcome all the problems facing by them and to learn how to take care of others feeling, patience, emotion control, temper, time management and attitude towards their family. In a marriage life, there are always someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s to hear your companions. It is good to have someone there to have a share, to bounce ideas or to have a witty exchange of remarks. Companionship among the married peoples also offers support and can be particularly important at times of trouble or stress. At such times, married people have distinct advantages over being single. The other advantage for marriage is that allows couples to pool their both incomes to share the cost of living and debts, save more money for retirement and doing investment. The married people can also sharing a house, car and food so they can enjoy save cost for basic living conditions compare with a single person. Therefore, people who are married become less poverty but more wealth and their money goes further. It is because, they tend to specialize, exchange, and share roles and functions in ways to generate higher earnings, encourage savings, helping each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s to restrain from impulse spending, and generally leave the family financially better off. Marriage can also leads to better health and greater longevity for people. There are more likely to enjoy better physical health. The spouses are intimately aware of and impacted by their spouseÃ¢â¬â¢s choices. In a sense, couples have a significant vested interest in watching out for one another and encouraging healthy choices and behaviour. For example, the wife might not allow her husband drinking, smoking or other unnecessary risk-taking and also control his weights. Compared to single, divorced or widowed people, the married people experience less depression, anxiety, and other types of psychological distress. Besides, the married people will have active, satisfying and safety sex lives compared with single people. The married people tend to have more sex because it costs them less in time, money and psychic energy. They have find it more satisfying because their sex partner is more available, less distracted, more eager and more secure and able to please. The higher levels of satisfaction for married couples is related to the fact that marriage adds meaning to the sexual act because it symbolizes a union that is based on sexual fidelity, stronger commitment and emotional intimacy. It had increased their commitment and their sense of responsibility, and had generally strengthened their relationships. In addition, the married life can brings greater safety towards the married people and expand their social network. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s because, the married people have companion to visit places together, visit friends or holiday together. For the single person, that is far more difficult as often modern social life is geared around Ã¢â¬ËcouplesÃ¢â¬â¢ and the single person can often feel left out or sometimes, simply not invited. At times, perhaps, having children might seem to impede their social life but it just brings a change in your social life and much of that social life involves being with your children. Lastly, married people will create a family with a new and challenging life instead of boring life compared with single people. Families are created and held together by the lifelong commitment of a man and a woman who live cooperatively and raise and nurture the children born to them. Families are the building block essential to the formation of a community, and strong social structure arises from the foundation many families provide. A thriving society and culture depend on stable marriages. For example, as marriage declines in a culture,Ã the state must spend more money and care for children who less of the financial stability with divorce family background. Strong marriages statuses are at the heart of thriving family and community. In conclusion, getting married is better than being single as there married leads to emotional stability, financial stability, train the couples become more independent and responsible, better health and greater longevity, have wonderful sexual life, easy to expand social networks and have a new challenging life instead of boring life compared to single people. Getting married is not an easy but it does bring a lot of meaningful to individuals, family and the community. How to cite Marries Is Better Than Being Single, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
The development of capitalism has often been discussed by historians who focus on the factors that could lead to the decline of the feudal society and emergence of the new socio-economic system. Much attention should be paid to the so-called Brenner debate because this discussion can throw light on various models that can explain the transformation of European societies.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Brenner Debate specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This debate revolves around the claims made by Robert Brenner who emphasizes the idea that new class and property relations resulted in the development of capitalism. In turn, this debate is critically evaluated by other historians. On the whole, it is possible to argue that a single approach cannot account for the dramatic transformation that different countries underwent. Much attention should be paid to the arguments advanced by Guy Bois who combines the elemen ts of the demographic and class models. On the whole, it is vital to focus on such factors as the property relations between various economic agents, demographic trends, as well as the increase in the productivity. These are the main issues that should be examined in great detail. It is possible to examine the arguments put forward by Robert Brenner who argues that the transformation of European societies can be explained primarily by the changing class structures1. In his opinion, much attention should be paid to the property relations. The capitalist system of production could emerge provided that economic agents such as peasants could secure their property rights. This privilege can be viewed as a good incentive for increasing the volume of production. One should keep in mind that Robert Brenner rejects the demographic model according to which social and economic breakthrough were driven by population fluctuations. It is vital to remember that demographic patterns could significa ntly affect wages and the demand for products. However, this model does not explain the differences in the socio-economic development of various countries. These are the main points that Robert Brenner makes. Overall, his work stimulated additional research on this topic. The validity of these claims should be discussed more closely. Some of BrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments are supported by other historians. For instance, it is possible to mention to mention Guy Bois who also examines the limitations of the demographic model2. In his opinion, this approach to the socio-economic development is too deterministic, and it cannot reflect the decisions of separate people. Moreover, this framework lays too much stress on such a factor as the struggle for resources.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, Guy Bois mentions that Brenner underestimates the importance of such a factor as p roductivity. In particular, he notes that the increase in productivity led to the surplus of goods. More importantly, this factor contributed to the intensification of trade between and within communities. In this case, one should not speak only about the adoption of new technologies. One should also pay much attention to the way in which labor was organized. To a great extent, this view of the formation of capitalism is supported by Rodney Hilton3 who focuses on the pre-requisites for the development of the new socio-economic system. In his view, the differences in the productivity led to the accumulation of capital and the development of new institutions. This is why this notion should not be overlooked. It should be mentioned that other historians such as Postan and Hatcher argue that Robert Brenner lays too much stress on political power of different economic agents. Nevertheless, one should not overlook the influence of such factors as inheritance customs or attitudes to innova tion, or military confrontations4. The main argument is that the economic stagnation of the feudal societies can be attributed to a diverse set of factors. Moreover, one should not suppose that the influence of demographic trends can be easily measured with the help of exiting research methods that require the study of quantitative data. The main problem is that these data are not always available to scholars. Additionally, historians such as Emmanuel Ladurie5 argue that the bargaining power of peasants can be explained by the population trends. In particular, the surplus of labor could strengthen the position of landlords. In the long-term, these trends could result in the formation of serfdom. This is why the validity of the demographic model cannot be fully rejected. Demographic trends are vital for showing how the bargaining power of different economic agents could change. For instance, the decline of the population could increase the wages of servants, as a result; these people could have more opportunities for accumulating capital. Similarly, the increasing population could contribute to increasing demand for various goods. Thus, the demographic model should not be disregarded. Overall, the socio-economic advance to capitalism cannot be attributed to only one factor such as new property relations or the changing demographic patterns. The development of the new political and economic system is not a deterministic process that can be easily predicted.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Brenner Debate specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More likely, researchers should pay attention to such factors as class relations, new forms of property, demographic trends, and the changes in the productivity. Robert BrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s views on the formation of capitalism are important because they can show how the bargaining power of producers could increase with time passing. These are the main details that can be singled out. Bibliography Bois, Guy. Ã¢â¬Å"Against the Neo-Malthusian Orthodoxy.Ã¢â¬ In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 107-119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Brenner, Robert. Ã¢â¬Å"Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre- Industrial Europe.Ã¢â¬ In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 10-64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Hilton, Rodney. Ã¢â¬Å"A Crisis of Feudalism.Ã¢â¬ In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 119-138. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Ladurie, Emmanuel. Ã¢â¬Å"A Reply to Robert Brenner.Ã¢â¬ In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 101-107. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Postan, Michael and John Hatcher. Ã¢â¬Å"Population and Class Relations in Feudal Society.Ã¢â¬ In The Brenner Debate, edited by Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin, 64-79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Footnotes 1 Robert Brenner, Ã¢â¬Å"Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre- Industrial Europe,Ã¢â¬ in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 30.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2 Guy Bois, Ã¢â¬Å"Against the Neo-Malthusian Orthodoxy,Ã¢â¬ in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 112 3 Rodney Hilton, Ã¢â¬Å"A Crisis of Feudalism,Ã¢â¬ in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 120 4 Michael Postan and John Hatcher. Ã¢â¬Å"Population and Class Relations in Feudal Society,Ã¢â¬ in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 66. 5 Emmanuel Ladurie, Ã¢â¬Å"A Reply to Robert Brenner,Ã¢â¬ in The Brenner Debate, ed. Trevor Aston and Charles Philpin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 103. This essay on The Brenner Debate was written and submitted by user F1sher to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Mask of Command essays A) What is the subject of the book' John Keegan's Mask of Command examines the unique status of the war general as he is perceived in a variety of historical and cultural settings. As war is a hallmark of all cultures, Keegan points to the universality of the general's persona. However, the author does not treat generalship solely from a psychological perspective. Rather, he sets out to place war generals in context of their times and societies. By analyzing four major historical figures that shaped not only their own cultures but that of neighboring societies and future generations, Keegan backs up his thesis with historical fact. The four war generals Keegan focuses on: Alexander the Great, Wellington, Ulysses S. Grant, and Hitler, each made a unique impact on history but was also a unique product of their particular epoch and culture. Therefore, Keegan shows that each of these major war generals deserves a different historical perspective. For instance, Alexander the Great is described by Keegan as being the quintessential hero. Especially in context of ancient Greek civilization in which heroism brings specific guidelines, Alexander embodied what it means to be a true war hero. His character seamlessly fit into his role as a war hero. In contrast, Wellington proved to be what Keegan calls an anti-hero, as he was reserved and relatively not ambitious, especially when compared with Alexander the Great. Many such generals were simply thrust into their roles as leaders because of their military know-how, intelligence, and prowess, not because they exhibited special character traits that enabled them to obtain glory for their nation. Likewise, Ulysses S. Grant is characterized by Keegan as being un-heroic: small in stature, Grant was notably modest and not prone to theatrics. His distaste for the bloodiness of war also bore testimony to the differences between him and other hist...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Bromine Facts (Atomic Number 35 or Br) Bromine is a halogen element with atomic number 35 and element symbol Br.Ã At room temperature and pressure, it is one of the few liquid elements. Bromine is known for its brown color and characteristic acrid odor. Here is a collection of facts about the element: Bromine Atomic Data Atomic Number: 35 Symbol: Br Atomic Weight: 79.904 Electron Configuration: [Ar]4s23d104p5 Word Origin: Greek bromos, which means stench Element Classification: Halogen Discovery: Antoine J. Balard (1826, France) Density (g/cc): 3.12 Melting Point (Ã °K): 265.9 Boiling Point (Ã °K): 331.9 Appearance: reddish-brown liquid, metallic luster in solid form Isotopes: There are 29 known isotopes of bromine ranging from Br-69 to Br-97. There are 2 stable isotopes: Br-79 (50.69% abundance) and Br-81 (49.31% abundance). Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 23.5 Covalent Radius (pm): 114 Ionic Radius: 47 (5e) 196 (-1e) Specific Heat (20Ã °C J/g mol): 0.473 (Br-Br) Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 10.57 (Br-Br) Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 29.56 (Br-Br) Pauling Negativity Number: 2.96 First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 1142.0 Oxidation States: 7, 5, 3, 1, -1 Lattice Structure: Orthorhombic Lattice Constant (Ãâ¦): 6.670 Magnetic Ordering: nonmagnetic Electrical Resistivity (20 Ã °C): 7.8Ãâ"1010 Ã ©Ã ·m Thermal Conductivity (300 K): 0.122 WÃ ·mÃ¢Ëâ1Ã ·KÃ¢Ëâ1 CAS Registry Number: 7726-95-6 Bromine Trivia Bromine is named after the Greek word bromos meaning stench because bromine smells... stinky. Its a sharp, acrid odor thats hard to describe, but many people know the smell from the elements use in swimming pools.Bromine was nearly discovered by two other chemists before Antoine Jerome Balard published his discovery. The first was in 1825 by the German chemist Justus von Liebig. He was sent a sample of salt water to analyze from a nearby town. He thought the brown liquid he separated from the salt water was a simple mixture of iodine and chlorine. After he learned of Balards discovery, he went back and checked. His liquid was the newly discovered bromine. The other discoverer was a chemistry student named Carl Loewig. He separated the same brown liquid in 1825 from another sample of salt water. His professor asked him to prepare more of the brown liquid for further testing and soon learned of Balards bromine.Elemental bromine is a toxic substance and can cause corrosion burns when ex posed to skin. Inhalation can cause irritation, in low concentrations, or death, in high concentration. Although toxic as a pure element and in high doses, bromine is an essential element for animals. The bromide ion is a cofactor in collagen synthesis.In World War I, xylyl bromide and related bromine compound were used as poison gas.Compounds containing bromine in the -1 oxidation state are called bromides.Bromine is the tenth most abundant element in sea water with an abundance of 67.3 mg/L.Bromine is the 64th most abundant element in the Earths crust with an abundance of 2.4 mg/kg.At room temperature, elemental bromine is a reddish-brown liquid. The only other element that is a liquid at room temperature is mercury.Bromine is used in many fire retardant compounds. When brominated compounds burn, hydrobromic acid is produced. The acid acts as a flame retardant by interfering with the oxidation reaction of combustion. Nontoxic halomethane compounds, such as bromochloromethane and bromotrifluoromethane, are used in submarines and spacecraft. However, they are not generally useful becau se they are expensive and because they damage the ozone layer. Bromide compounds used to be used as sedatives and anticonvulsants. Specifically, sodium bromide and potassium bromide were used in the 19th and 20th century until they were replaced by chloral hydrate, which was in turn replaced by barbituates and other drugs.The ancient royal purple dye called Tyrian Purple is a bromine compound.Bromine was used in leaded fuels to help prevent engine knock in the form of ethylene bromide.Herbert Dow, founder of the Dow Chemical Company started his business separating bromine from brine waters of the Midwestern United States. Sources Duan, Defang; et al. (2007-09-26). Ab initio studies of solid bromine under high pressure. Physical Review B. 76 (10): 104113. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.76.104113Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9.Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.121. ISBN 1439855110.Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). The discovery of the elements: XVII. The halogen family. Journal of Chemical Education. 9 (11): 1915. doi:10.1021/ed009p1915 Return to the Periodic Table
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Phonological aspect of English teaching and learning - Research Proposal Example In teaching process much depends on a teacher of foreign language and what English is taught and spoken by the teacher. Nowadays, interest rises in the sphere of phonology and phonetics, as growing number of English speakers of outside the cycle and expanding cycle globally leads to modification of original English under the influence of globalization. It is necessary to analyze this issue on the Arabic learners of English language. (Abd-Elbasseer, Barakat, 2007) The matters of mother tongue influence and its avoiding while learning English of what and how to teach are one of the most discussed ones, both from the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ sides. English learning is a wide field of research, especially because of there are several variants of English, and each is considered to be right by its speakers. English teaching methodology has proved the fact of mother tongue influence on English learning statement. (Kavaliauskiene, G., 2009). Mother tongue influences foreign language as the learner tends to compare what to teach to the mother tongue, and all the information received is analyzed and digested from the point of view of differences between these two languages. When pronouncing the sounds of English, vowels and consonants of the mother tongue make the basis for the sounds studied which is incorrect and needs remediation in the process of studying. (Kavaliauskiene, 2009).